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Solar Information - Solar Irradiation

Solar Radiation Map of Australia

This map plots design insolation to the extent known on the surface of the earth. The design insolation is the average value of the total sugar energy received each day on an optimally tilted surface during the month with the lowest solar radiation received on that surface. The unit of measurement is kilowatt-hrs/m²/day. The solar constant at the earth's surface is approximately 1 kw/m² so these units are often referred to as equivalent (peak) sun hours.

The design insolation is the figure of merit for designing solar photovoltaic systems where the electrical demand is continuous or is not expected to vary seasonally. The design insolation is used to estimate the maximum solar array size that will be required for a given electrical load at a given location.

Solar Radiation map of Australia

Radiation Chart at Latitude Angle

TABLE 3 TOTAL GLOBAL RADIATION ON A NORTH FACING FLAT-PLATE INCLINED AT LATITUDE ANGLE
(kWh/m 2 -day)

LOCATION
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
AVG
Adelaide 7.8 7.3 6.3 5.0 3.8 3.5 3.4 4.4 5.3 6.5 7.0 7.4 5.6
Albany 7.1 6.2 5.3 4.1 3.5 3.2 3.4 4.0 4.7 5.6 6.1 6.8 5.0
Alice Springs 7.6 7.0 6.8 6.5 5.4 5.0 5.5 6.2 7.1 7.3 7.6 7.7 6.5
Brisbane 6.9 6.6 6.0 5.8 4.8 4.4 4.8 5.4 6.5 6.5 7.3 6.9 6.0
Broome 5.6 6.2 6.3 6.5 5.8 5.4 5.9 6.6 7.2 7.4 6.1 5.9 6.2
Cairns 5.3 5.8 5.7 5.6 4.8 4.7 4.8 5.6 6.4 6.6 5.7 5.4 5.5
Canberra 7.4 7.0 6.2 5.5 4.1 3.7 3.9 4.5 5.6 6.2 7.0 7.3 5.7
Carnarvon 7.7 7.5 7.0 5.7 5.4 4.8 5.4 6.1 7.1 7.6 7.8 8.1 6.7
Ceduna 7.8 7.3 6.4 5.4 4.2 3.8 4.1 4.9 5.8 6.7 7.1 7.3 5.9
Charleville 7.5 7.3 6.7 6.4 5.1 4.7 5.2 5.8 6.9 7.3 7.8 7.4 6.5
Cloncurry 5.8 6.8 6.5 6.7 5.7 5.5 5.8 6.5 7.2 7.6 7.8 5.9 6.4
Cobar 7.6 7.6 5.6 6.0 4.6 4.1 4.5 5.1 6.4 6.9 7.7 7.7 6.0
Coff's Harbour 6.8 6.6 6.2 5.6 4.6 4.2 4.7 5.1 6.3 6.4 7.2 6.8 5.9
Daly Waters 5.4 5.8 5.9 6.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 6.6 6.8 6.9 5.8 5.6 6.0
Darwin 5.3 5.2 5.7 6.4 5.8 5.8 5.9 6.5 6.8 6.7 5.9 5.5 5.9
Forrest 7.6 7.0 6.4 5.5 4.5 4.0 4.4 5.1 6.4 6.9 7.5 7.3 6.1
Geraldton 7.8 7.6 7.1 5.4 5.0 4.3 4.7 5.3 6.5 7.2 7.5 8.0 6.4
Giles 7.5 6.9 6.8 6.3 5.1 4.8 5.5 6.1 7.1 7.3 7.6 7.3 6.5
Gladstone 7.1 6.9 6.3 6.1 5.2 4.8 5.1 5.7 6.8 7.0 7.4 7.1 6.3
Hall's Creek 5.6 6.8 6.1 6.5 5.6 5.5 5.6 6.4 7.0 6.9 7.2 5.7 6.3
Hobart 7.0 6.3 5.3 4.2 3.1 2.9 3.1 3.8 4.7 6.0 6.3 6.7 4.9
Kalgoorlie 8.1 7.4 6.8 5.2 4.7 4.0 4.4 5.2 6.4 7.1 7.6 7.9 6.3
Launceston 7.5 6.9 5.8 4.5 3.4 2.9 3.1 3.9 5.0 6.3 6.9 7.2 5.3
Longreach 7.4 7.0 7.0 6.5 5.3 5.0 5.4 6.0 7.2 7.5 8.2 7.4 6.6
Mackay 5.5 6.3 5.9 5.6 4.8 4.8 5.0 5.5 6.6 6.8 7.2 5.6 5.8
Meeketharra 7.5 7.1 6.7 5.4 5.1 4.5 5.1 5.8 7.0 7.4 7.6 7.8 6.4
Melbourne 7.1 6.5 5.7 4.6 3.4 3.1 3.2 3.9 4.8 5.8 6.3 6.8 5.1
Mildura 8.0 7.8 6.9 5.7 4.2 3.8 4.0 4.8 5.8 6.8 7.5 7.9 6.1
Mt Gambier 7.2 6.5 5.6 4.3 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.9 4.7 5.8 6.2 6.7 5.0
Nhill 8.1 7.6 6.6 5.2 3.8 3.4 3.4 4.4 5.4 6.7 7.1 7.8 5.8
Onslow 6.0 6.9 7.1 5.8 5.4 5.1 5.8 6.2 7.2 7.7 8.1 6.2 6.4
Oodnadatta 7.9 7.5 7.2 6.4 4.9 4.6 5.1 5.8 7.0 7.2 7.6 7.8 6.4
Perth 8.1 7.7 6.7 5.0 4.5 3.6 4.0 4.8 5.9 6.8 7.3 7.9 6.0
Port Hedland 5.8 6.6 6.6 6.2 5.6 5.3 5.8 6.3 7.2 7.7 8.0 6.2 6.4
Rockhampton 6.8 6.7 6.2 5.9 5.1 4.8 5.2 5.6 6.8 6.9 7.3 6.9 6.2
Sale 7.2 6.6 5.7 4.5 3.5 3.1 3.3 4.0 5.0 5.8 6.5 6.8 5.2
Sydney 6.5 6.4 5.8 5.3 4.4 3.7 4.2 4.7 5.6 5.9 6.7 6.6 5.5
Tamworth 7.4 7.2 6.5 5.9 4.5 4.0 4.4 4.9 6.1 6.7 7.5 7.5 6.0
Thursday Is. 4.9 5.0 5.4 5.5 4.9 4.7 4.9 5.2 6.0 6.1 5.8 5.3 5.3
Townsville 5.5 6.4 6.1 6.0 5.1 5.0 5.3 5.7 6.8 6.9 7.2 5.7 6.0
Wagga 7.8 7.6 6.5 5.3 4.0 3.6 3.5 4.3 5.6 6.5 7.3 7.8 5.8
Williamstown 6.9 6.6 6.0 5.5 4.5 3.9 4.4 4.9 5.9 6.1 7.0 7.0 5.7
Woomera 7.9 7.6 6.9 5.9 4.5 4.0 4.4 5.3 6.3 7.1 7.6 7.9 6.3

Selection of Optimal Tilt Angle

WATER REQUIREMENT LATITUDE STANDARD TILT ANGLE
Spread over the year 0° +/-22°29
15°
Largest in spring or in autumn +/-22°30 -+/-37°29
30°
(LAT) +/-37°30 -+/-50°00
45°
Largest in Summer 0° +/-37°29
15°
(LAT - 15°) +/-37°30 -+/-50°00
30°
  0° +/-7°29
15°
Largest in Winter +/-7°30 -+/-22°29
30°
(LAT + 15°) +/-22°30 -+/-39°99
45°
  +/-40°00 -+/-50°00
50°
"+: Northern latitude."
"-: Southern latitude."
Note: Minimum tilt angle 15°

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